Policy Options

Electric Vehicles



NCEL Point of Contact

Ava Gallo
Climate and Energy Program Manager



Price volatility of fossil fuels and a growing emphasis on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions make electric vehicles (EV) and hybrids an attractive alternative to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. States have utilized multiple policy mechanisms to spur deployment and adoption of EVs, capitalizing on benefits to energy security and both environmental and human health.

Policy Options

‘**’ indicates bipartisan support


  • California AB-2832 (enacted 2018): created an Advisory Group to advise the legislature on the recovery and recycling of vehicular lithium-ion batteries. The Advisory Group released its draft report with policy recommendations at the end of 2021. 
  • Washington S.B.5144 (enacted 2023): requires each producer selling batteries in or into the state of Washington to participate in a state battery stewardship plan and appropriately fund a battery stewardship organization.

Charging Infrastructure and Parking

  • **Colorado HB22-1218 (enacted 2022): required commercial buildings and multifamily residences to include electric vehicle charging for at least 10% of the parking spaces if the building is 25,000 square feet or more; etc.
  • **Oregon H.B.2180 (enacted 2021): amends state building code to require that new construction of certain buildings include provisions for electrical service capacity for specified percentage of parking spaces.

Electric School Buses

  • Maine L.D. 519 (enacted 2023): requires the Efficiency Maine Trust to design and operate a 2-year vehicle-to-grid pilot project to use electric school buses to store energy from the electric grid during times of low demand and low usage rates and discharge the stored energy to the grid during times of high demand and high usage rates.
  • Virginia H.B. 2118 (enacted 2021): establishes the Electric Vehicle Grant Fund and Program for the purpose of awarding grants to public school divisions for replacing diesel school buses with electric school buses, implementing recharging infrastructure, and providing training to support the operation of electric school buses.

Electrifying State Fleets

  • Hawaii S.B.1024 (enacted 2023): establishes a statewide goal to achieve zero emissions across all transportation modes (ground, air, and sea) within the state.
  • Nevada A.B.262 (enacted 2023): Requires every employee and department of the State to give preference to automobiles that minimize: (1) emissions and (2) the total cost of the automobile over the service life of the automobile; sets a state policy goal to transition all publicly-owned vehicles to vehicles which emit zero tailpipe emissions by 2050.
  • Virginia S.B. 575 (enacted 2022): beginning 2023, requires all agencies of the Commonwealth to utilize the total cost of ownership calculator prior to purchasing or leasing light-duty vehicles and to purchase electric vehicles unless the calculator clearly indicates that purchasing or leasing an internal combustion-engine vehicle has a lower cost of ownership.

Multi-Family Housing Charging

  • Illinois S.B.0040 (enacted 2023): requires a new single-family residence or a small multifamily residence to have at least one electric vehicle capable parking space; requires electric vehicle parking spaces for affordable housing and for an existing multi-unit residential building subject to an association that undertakes renovation.
  • Utah S.B.152 (enacted 2022): Prohibits a community association from prohibiting a unit owner from installing or using a charging system.


  • Colorado HB 23-1272 (enacted 2023): increases the Colorado EV tax credit from $2,000 to $5,000 for vehicles with a manufacturer-suggested retail price under $80,000; creates a state tax credit of $12,000 for medium and heavy-duty electric trucks. 
  • Vermont H.433 (enacted 2021): creates a high fuel efficiency vehicle incentive program to provide point-of-sale vouchers through the State’s network of community action agencies and set income eligibility for the voucher at 80 percent of the State median income.

Rural Access


NCEL Resources


Emission Reduction Targets

December 1, 2021

Online Resources

Roadmap for Electric Transportation - Regulatory Assistance Project

RAP has a roadmap for electrifying transportation with legislative and policy guides.

Go to resource
AchiEVe - Sierra Club

AchiEVe: Model Policies to Accelerate Electric Vehicle Adoption

Go to resource
State and Local Policy Database - ACEEE

ACEEE has a State Policy Tracker for State Fleet Electrification

Go to resource
State Plug-in Adoption Resource Kit - Electrification Coalition

The Electrification Coalition has a State Plug-In Adoption Resource Kit for fleet managers and other state government officials.

Go to resource

Empower State Environmental Champions

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