Exotic Wildlife Trafficking

Wildlife Trafficking

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Overview

Illegal ivory trafficking is an escalating global issue. Elephants and rhinos may soon be driven to extinction by poaching. The demand for elephant ivory and rhino horn, driven by China, Vietnam, the United States and other countries, has created a massive international market that can have detrimental economic, social and environmental effects.

Poaching is now a sophisticated international crime racket and a national security threat. Terrorist organizations such as al-Shabaab in Somalia, the Janjaweed militia in Sudan and the Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda obtain millions from ivory trafficking and use it to finance their attacks on Americans and others.  Approximately 35,000 elephants are killed annually, close to 100 elephants every day.  At this rate elephants will be extinct in a few decades. 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recommended instituting a near ban on the domestic ivory trade, and placed a moratorium on ivory importation. A host of states that have significant ivory markets or are concerned about the poaching crisis have enacted or are contemplating a ban on the ivory and rhino horn trades in their jurisdictions.

Key Points

1) Over 100,000 elephants were poached from 2010 to 2012. It is estimated that there are about 500,000 African elephants left in the wild. (National Academy of Sciences)

2) Rhinos are on the brink of extinction. There are only 28,000 rhinos left globally, and 20,000 of these are the Southern white rhino. There are only 8,000 of the other four species of rhinos combined.

3) Wildlife poaching is worth $8-10 billion per year, and ranks only behind narcotics, counterfeiting, and human trafficking in international crime activities.

4) The U.S. is the world’s second largest consumer of ivory behind China. One-third of ivory sold in the U.S. was recently carved, and thus was illegally imported from recently poached elephants. (HSUS)

NCEL’s Ivory and Rhino Horn Factsheet
Download
 

Legislation

 

  • In 2014, New Jersey and New York became the first states to ban sales of ivory and rhino horn products. California and Washington enacted similar laws in 2015. 
  • Currently 17 states and the District of Columbia are considering bills to address wildlife trafficking. 
  • Some state bills include exceptions to the ban on the sale of ivory, including antique ivory not less than 100 years old and held by permit and/or inheritance. 

 

  • Arizona

    • HB 2176 — Ivory or rhinoceros horn permits; definitions

    Colorado

    • HB 16-1341 — Concerning protecting animal species threatened with extinction by prohibiting trafficking 

    Connecticut

    • HB 5578 — An act prohibiting the sale and trade of ivory and rhinoceros horn 

    Delaware

    • SB 156 — An act to amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code relating to the import, sale, purchase, trade, barter, or possession of ivory and rhinoceros horn 

    District of Columbia

    • DC B21-251 — Prohibits the import, sale, purchase, barter, or possession with intent to sell ivory and rhinoceros horns in the District.

    Hawaii

    • SB 2647 —  Prohibiting wildlife trafficking 
    • HB 2502 — Relating to wildlife trafficking 

    Illinois

    • SB 1858 — Provides that it shall be unlawful for any person to import, sell, offer for sale, purchase, barter, or possess with intent to sell, any ivory, ivory product, rhinoceros horn, or rhinoceros horn product

    Iowa

    • HF 2204 — An Act prohibiting the sale of ivory and rhinoceros horn with certainproviding penalties, and including effective date provisions. 
    • SR 101 — Resolution supporting the federal government’s proposed rule changes that would restrict the sale of African ivory across state lines

    Indiana

    • HB 1052 — Ban on ivory and rhino horn sales

    Maryland

    • HB 542 — Prohibiting a person from purchasing, selling, offering for sale, or possessing with the intent to sell specified parts or products of specified animal species
    • SB 991 — For the purpose of prohibiting a person from purchasing, selling, offering for sale, or possessing with the intent to sell certain parts or products of certain animal species

    Massachusetts

    • H 1275 — Prohibiting the import, sale, purchase, barter, or possession with intent to sell, of any ivory, ivory product, rhinoceros horn, or rhinoceros horn product.

    New Jersey

    • A 4773 — Prohibiting transport or possession of “Big 5” African species through Port Authority

    New York

    • AB 8394 — An act prohibiting the possession and transport of certain animals and
      body parts thereof at airports and port facilities owned or operated
      by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
    • AB 6071 — Relates to musical instruments containing ivory or rhinoceros horn

    Pennsylvania 

    • HB 1537 –Prohibiting the import, sale, purchase, barter
      or possession of ivory or rhinoceros horn

    Rhode Island

    • H 7669 — Sale of ivory or rhinoceros horns 

    Vermont 

    • H 297 — Prohibit the import, sale, offer for sale, purchase, barter, or possession with intent to sell of
       any ivory, ivory product, rhinoceros horn, or rhinoceros horn product

    Washington

    • Initiative 1401, funding for — I-1401 passed in Nov. 2015 to restrict endangered species product; 2016 Governor’s Supplemental Budget contains $500,000 for enforcement

    Wisconsin 

    • SB 728 — Relating to the sale and purchase of products containing ivory or rhinoceros horn and providing a criminal penalty

    To download a complete list of bills and their current status as of 3.15.16, click here

Science and Reports

This report identifies common and different features of the international wildlife trade in these four locations, exploring the various motivations for why people engage in the trade, the nature of the trade and types of victimisation. An overview of the response to the trade is discussed and evaluated through SWOT analysis – identifying strengths and weaknesses, and proposing suggestions for improvements. The full report is available here


This report summarizes the views of a number of governments and international organizations on illicit wildlife trafficking. It reveals that the current global approach is failing, and that the illegal wildlife trade is worth $19 billion annually. The full report is available here


IFAW’s investigation took place simultaneously in 16 countries over a six week period, recording the trade in protected wildlife over online marketplaces – looking at both live wild animals and their derivative parts and products – of CITES Appendix I species. Ivory and suspected ivory posts made up nearly one-third of all traded items found in this study. The investigators also lay out the frequency of endangered wildlife trading and potential solutions for addressing the problem. The full report is available here

 

 

Resources

Download the NCEL Fact Sheet with key facts and links to legislation here.


The National Strategy for Combating Wildlife Trafficking establishes guiding principles and strategic
priorities for U.S. efforts to stem illegal trade in wildlife. The full strategy is detailed here


CITES is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. More information about CITES is available here


Saving Animals From Extinction focuses on wildlife conservation worldwide, and are currently working to pass Initiative 1401 in Washington State. 1401 would prohibit the purchase, sale and distribution of most endangered species products. Learn more about the organization here


 

 

 

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