The EPA defines brownfields as abandoned, idled or underused industrial and commercial properties where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. Along with being unattractive, brownfields are usually contaminated with hazardous materials and pose hazards to neighbors and communities. Many underestimate the negative externalities that come along with former factories, parking lots, and railroads sitting idle. These vacant properties cause neighbors to fear property value loss and influence businesses to seek out more desirable property causing sprawl into greener areas.
The EPA's Brownfields program was started in 1995 and since then the Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act has been codified. The act provides funding for assessment and clean-up of brownfields under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, or CERCLA. Although the federal law applies to brownfield cleanup, most brownfields are regulated by the states. Many states have voluntary cleanup or state specific Brownfield programs that specify the eligibility requirements for applicants.
Redeveloping brownfields bring benefits to the community and environment, eliminates health and safety hazards, increases the productivity of the land, and increases property values and tax receipts for the local government. The EPA conducted a study in 5 cities (Seattle, WA, Baltimore, MD, Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, Emeryville, CA, Dallas-Fort Worth, TX) that demonstrated that the redevelopment of brownfields in cities brought about environmental benefits to the area.
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